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Ambarawa 8 in Ambarawa

Town: Ambarawa
District: Central Java
Region: Java
Location: Ambarawa is situated in Central Java, south of Semarang. The boarding school for boys of the Brothers of the Congregation of of St. Louis (Aloysius Gonzaga) was at Mergo Agoeng in the north of the city.
From 19 June 1943 to September 1944 this location served as a civilian camp >>
Internees: women and children
Number of internees: 740
Number of deceased: 10
Information: From June 1943, the Roman Catholic Mulo (a type of continuing education school) and attached boarding school buildings were used as an internment camp for women and children. The complex was surrounded by barbed wire and gedek. In September 1944 the women and children were transferred to other camps. Almost 80 boys 12 years and older and elderly and sick men remained in the camp.
Commendant: Sakai Sadao; Suzuki Susumu
Main guards: Idris; Paulus; Takada Katsuaki; Urata Toshitaro; Hada; Okada Eigaku; Higashihara; Kanno; Tsuyama
Guards: Native personnel, heiho's
Camp leaders: mw. W. (Wies) van Leeuwen

From September 1944 to 17 May 1945 this location served as a civilian camp >>
Internees: boys and old men
Number of internees: 1.330
Number of deceased: 230
Information: In September of 1944 the women and children interned at the Roman Catholic Mulo (a type of continuing education school) and attached boarding school buildings were transferred to other camps. A small group of elderly men, sick men, and boys 12 years or older remained in the camp, which was surrounded by barbed wire and gedek. Other boys and elderly men were brought to join them from other camps in Ambarawa and Banjoebiroe. The conditions in all of the camps in Ambarawa were terrible due to severe overcrowding and a serious shortage of food and medicines. On 17 May 1945 Camp Ambarawa 8 was abandoned and the internees were taken to other camps. As a result, Camp Ambarawa 9 in the Roman Catholic Teachers' College and its girls’ dormitory, was reclassified as Camp Ambarawa 8.
Commendant: Yamada
Main guards: Takada Katsuaki; Urata Toshitaro; Hada; Okada Eigaku; Higashihara; Kanno; Tsuyama
Camp leaders: C.B.F. Refuge
Literature: Al, J., Ambarawa, Bandoengan en de Belg Refuge. Mythe en werkelijkheid over twee Japanse kampen (Rotterdam 1994)
Wendelaar Bonga, D., Eight prison camps. A Dutch family in Japanese Java (Athens 1996)
Claassen, R. en J. van Grootheest, Getekend. Nederlanders in Japanse kampen (Den Haag 1995)
Sprang, A. van, Doodenkamp Ambarawa. Ooggetuigeverslag door den journalist en radio-omroeper Alfred van Sprang die vele maanden als ziekenverpleger gewerkt heeft in een kamp van zieken en ouden van dagen te Ambarawa (N.O.I.) (Amsterdam 1946)