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Ambarawa 7 in Ambarawa

Town: Ambarawa
District: Central Java
Region: Java
Location: Ambarawa is situated in Central Java, south of Semarang. The military hospital was in the south of the city.
From 22 December 1942 to January 1945 this location served as a civilian camp >>
Internees: old men, women and children
Number of internees: 1.225
Number of deceased: 12
Information: People were interned twice under the auspices of the Dutch-Indies administration in the condemned military hospital at Ambarawa: in 1940 it was Germans and (suspected) members of the NSB, and in 1941 it was Japanese from the Vorstenlanden (the autonomous regions of Surakarta and Yogyakarta). During the Japanese occupation, from December 1942, the hospital was used as an internment camp for women, children, and elderly men. At the beginning of January 1945 the women and children were taken to other camps; the elderly men and boys over 10 years old remained in the camp.
Commendant: Sakai Sadao; Suzuki Susumu; Yamada
Main guards: Yamamoto Eiji; Urata Toshitaro; Yamada; Nagamatsu; Kanemura; Kanno; Aomatsu; Yamamoto Toshio
Guards: Native personnel, heiho's
Camp leaders: mw. A.C. (Annie) Scharrenberg-Franzen
Literature: Lenderink-Talsma, E., Vierduizend mensen en één koeiekop. Een waargebeurd verhaal van een familie in het Jappenkamp (Amsterdam 1993)

From January 1945 to 23 August 1945 this location served as a civilian camp >>
Internees: boys and old men
Number of internees: 2.700
Number of deceased: 683 (January 1st - October 15th, 1945)
Information: In January of 1945 the women and children interned at the condemned military hospital at Ambarawa were transferred to other camps. Boys 10 years old or older and the elderly men remained at the camp. Other elderly men and boys were brought there from camps in Ambarawa and Banjoebiroe. The conditions in all of the camps in Ambarawa were poor due to enormous overcrowding and a serious shortage of food and medicines.
Commendant: Suzuki Susumu; Yamada
Main guards: Yamamoto Eiji; Urata Toshitaro; Yamada; Nagamatsu; Kanemura; Kanno; Aomatsu; Yamamoto Toshio
Guards: Native personnel, heiho's
Camp leaders: ir. J. Terhenne; dhr. Kok
Literature: Al, J., Ambarawa, Bandoengan en de Belg Refuge. Mythe en werkelijkheid over twee Japanse kampen (Rotterdam 1994)
Wendelaar Bonga, D., Eight prison camps. A Dutch family in Japanese Java (Athens 1996)
Claassen, R. en J. van Grootheest, Getekend. Nederlanders in Japanse kampen (Den Haag 1995)
Sprang, A. van, Doodenkamp Ambarawa. Ooggetuigeverslag door den journalist en radio-omroeper Alfred van Sprang die vele maanden als ziekenverpleger gewerkt heeft in een kamp van zieken en ouden van dagen te Ambarawa (N.O.I.) (Amsterdam 1946)

From 23 August 1945 to 10 December 1945 this location served as a relief camp >>
Internees: boys and old men
Number of internees: 2.500
Information: At the time of the Japanese capitulation, the condemned military hospital at Ambarawa housed approximately 2,500 elderly men and boys of ten years or older. Starting 24 August 1945, boys from the camp joined their mothers at the camps Banjoebiroe 12, Ambarawa 6 and Banjoebiroe 11. In the second half of September, the ill were transferred to the military hospital in Magelang. In October a group of pemoedas forced their way into the camp and abducted a group of 86 boys and men. They were imprisoned in Fort Willem I and elsewhere in Ambarawa.On 21 September the British and Japanese troops guarding the camp repelled an attack by TKR militia. At night, the camp lay under fire from mortar attacks from the surrounding hills. In the second week of December, the British troops evacuated the camp, and thereafter the building was burned to the ground.
Commendant: Yamada
Guards: Japanese military personnel, British military personnel
Camp leaders: ir. J. Terhenne; dhr. Kok
Literature: Broeshart, A.C., L.W. Nagtegaal en H.G. Quik, Vrede, maar geen bevrijding. Gebeurtenissen op Midden-Java in de Bersiaptijd (Leiden 1989)
MacGillavry, A.C.A., Je kunt niet altijd huilen. Gebroken leven van een Nederlands gezin in de "Indische" oorlogsjaren (Bussum 1978-5)

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