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Ambarawa 6 in Ambarawa

Town: Ambarawa
District: Central Java
Region: Java
Location: Ambarawa is situated in Central Java, south of Semarang. The KNIL encampment was south of the aloen-aloen, in the south of the city.
From 05 December 1942 to 23 August 1945 this location served as a civilian camp >>
Internees: boys, old men, women and children
Number of internees: 4.090
Number of deceased: 90
Information: The KNIL encampment in Ambarawa functioned from December 1942 as an assembly camp for women, children, and elderly men. They were gathered into ten stone barracks and outbuildings, surrounded with barbed wire and gedek.The conditions in all camps in Ambarawa were bad, thanks to massive overcrowding and a serious shortage of food and medicine.
Commendant: Sakai Sadao; Suzuki Susumu; Yamada Ryugen
Main guards: Ogata Suehiro; Yamamoto Eiji; Asano Kazumi; Urata Toshitaro; Tsuneyama Hoyo; Okada Eigaku; Tokuyama Shutoku; Hayakawa Zenjiro; Yamamoto Toshio; Yamada Eitetsu; Yanamura Kichiryo; Tominaga Kuniaki; Takada Katsuaki
Guards: Native personnel
Camp leaders: mw. J.G. Schulte-Eckhart; mw. G.J. Jilderda-Visser
Literature: Wendelaar Bonga, D., Eight prison camps. A Dutch family in Japanese Java (Athens 1996)
Lenderink-Talsma, E., Vierduizend mensen en één koeiekop. Een waargebeurd verhaal van een familie in het Jappenkamp (Amsterdam 1993)
Heijmans-van Bruggen, M.P. (red.), De Japanse bezetting in dagboeken: vrouwenkamp Ambarawa 6 (Amsterdam 2001)
Fenton Huie, S., Vergeten (Baarn 1994)
Fenton Huie, S., The forgotten ones. Women and children under Nippon (Pymble 1992)
Alt, M.A., Ons kampleven gedurende de Japansche en republikeinsche bezetting (Soerabaja [ca. 1947])
Schilling, R., Verloren jeugdjaren 1942-1946 (Amsterdam 1995)
Tieleman, R. en H., Het rattevel. Dagboek van de tweeling Tieleman in Japanse gevangenschap (Franeker 1994)
Helfferich-Koch, H., Een dal in Ambarawa (Alphen a.d. Rijn 1981)
Jongh, W. de, Olie en zweet, een traan, een lach (Den Haag 1980)
Plantenga-van Noort, E., Gepeperde toestanden. Herinneringen aan Indië (Groningen 2005)
Vervoort, H., Vanonder de koperen ploert (Amsterdam 1975)

From 23 August 1945 to 10 December 1945 this location served as a relief camp >>
Internees: boys, old men, women and children
Number of internees: 4.000
Number of deceased: 44 (August 1st - October 15th, 1945)
Information: At the time of the Japanese capitulation, the KNIL encampment in Ambarawa housed approximately 4,000 women and children. Extra food and medicine began to arrive at the camp on 23 August 1945. On August 24th, the Indo-European women were released from the camp, and on August 25th the Japanese capitulation was announced. At the end of September, the RAPWI took 1,200 sick people from the camp to the military hospital in Magelang. There was a great deal of unrest around the camp when the bersiap period began on 14 October, but the camp’s inhabitants were not threatened. During November the republicans became more aggressive. The camp was encircled by pemoedas. The British and Japanese troops guarding the camp were continually attacked. Water and electricity were cut off. There were casualties in the camp from grenade attacks. Therefore an evacuation to Semarang was begun on December 8th, and was completed two days later.
Commendant: Yamada Ryugen
Main guards: Takada Katsuaki
Guards: Japanese military personnel, British military personnel
Camp leaders: mw. G.J. Jilderda-Visser
Literature: Heijmans-van Bruggen, M.P. (red.), De Japanse bezetting in dagboeken: vrouwenkamp Ambarawa 6 (Amsterdam 2001)
Broeshart, A.C., L.W. Nagtegaal en H.G. Quik, Vrede, maar geen bevrijding. Gebeurtenissen op Midden-Java in de Bersiaptijd (Leiden 1989)